Happenings in China and Elsewhere
Meiji Restoration in Japan 1868; reforms in era of Emperor Meiji, 1868-1912
Dr. Sun traveled, lived and organized political activities in Japan where thousands of Chinese went to study.
Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895, Statesman Li Hongzhang negotiates Treaty of Shimonoseki for a defeated China.
Dr. wrote Li a letter offering his ideas and services to modernize China; he received no answer and left for Hawai`i where he organized the Xingzhonghui.
Dr. Jose Rizal, Philippine nationalist reformer, executed by Spanish, 30 December 1896.
Dr. Sun sympathized with Philippine nationalism and the independence movement.
Photo of Rizal Statue, Honolulu
(Courtesy of L. Pang Photo)
Spanish-American War: U.S. Commodore George Dewey destroys Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, 1 May 1898.
Emilio Aguinaldo proclaims Philippine independence, 12 June 1898; promulgates Constitution, 21 January 1899.
100 Days Reform under Qing Emperor Guangxu, instigated by reformers including Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao, June-September 1898. Kang and Liang supported constitutional reform.
Dr. Sun gave Liang a letter of introduction to Hawai`i's Chinese but Liang drew supporters away from Sun.
Boxer Uprising attacks Chinese Christians and besieges Beijing's foreign legation areas, 1900.
Young student revolutionary Zou Rong writes anti-Manchu tract The Revolutionary Army, 1903.
Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905
Chinese nationalist boycott of U.S. goods to protest American anti-Chinese acts (e.g., 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act and mistreatment) June 1905.
Russian Revolutionary attempt 1905