Hong Kong: Where a Future Revolutionary Leader was Nurtured

By Francis Tsui     When Dr. Sun Yat-sen was reminiscing about his student days in Hong Kong during one of his visits to Hong Kong University in 1923, he remarked that years ago he “got the revolutionary ideas in this very place, in the colony of Hong Kong.” Skeptics may question whether Sun Yat-sen really meant what he said or was just saying this to capture and please his audience. Nonetheless, no serious study of Sun’s revolutionary background should overlook or trivialize his sojourn in Hong Kong from 1883 to 1895. Those twelve years were important fomative years in…

詳情

Educating a Revolutionary: Sun Yat-Sen’s Schooling in Hawaii

By Alfred L. Castle     Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) was the best known revolutionary proponent of a Chinese republic, both in China and abroad. Born of peasant stock near Canton, a cosmopolitan southern section of China, he was a Westernized Chinese. His Westernization had come from his residency and schooling in Hawaii, his medical studies in Hong Kong, and his organizational activities in the rapidly modernizing Japan. This background served him well as he traveled to gain support for China’s revolution. Sun Yat-sen’s intellectual legacy to those who followed him was fully formulated by the time of the Chinese Revolution…

詳情

Sun Yat-Sen in China’s Heroic Tradition

By Loretta Pang     In a brief autobiography written in 1896, Sun Yat-sen asserted that he revered the sage kings Tang (reigned 1751-1739 BC?) and Wu (reigned 1121-1116 BC) from China’s distant past. As a young man, he also admired Hong Xiuchuan (AD 1814-1864), leader of the Taiping Rebellion, and identified with him to the extent that the friends with whom he discussed politics jokingly called him by that name. That Sun would single out these individuals as his personal heroes reveals as much about China’s heroic tradition as it does about Sun, who himself would become a heroic…

詳情

The “South” in Chinese History

By D. W. Y .Kwok     In Chinese cultural awareness, the “South” is a composite term which acquired complexities and layers of meaning as her cultural geography expanded with the movement of history. Some of these meanings and connotations may be noted for the purposes of this brief treatment of the subject. First, north-to-south was from earliest Chinese history the principal orientation of any view of the south. Both cosmology and geography reinforce this view. While the North Polar Star serves as the guiding reference point of cosmic bearing, the Chinese compass has always been called “South-pointing needle (zinanzhen.)…

詳情

Sun Yat-Sen and Hawaii

By William M. Zanella     When the Wuchang revolt of Oct. 10, 1911, the military launching of the Xinhai Revolution, broke out, Sun Yat-Sen was in America. He learned of these portentous events by reading about them in a newspaper while traveling by train from Denver to Kansas City. That the “Father of the Chinese Revolution” was abroad for one of the most momentous events in modern Chinese history is one of the many ironies of his revolutionary career. Titular leader of a revolution begun in his absence, Sun was destined to be forced to live outside of China…

詳情

第五次訪問:1903年9月-1904年3月

47號注銷支票     由林志收藏 (由林文光和Yansheng Ma Lum提供) “1904年2月19日的注銷支票,由希洛第一銀行開出, 希洛中國革命軍出納Tom Wai Kim 開給孫中山的158美元支票。孫中山和興中會的會長何豐批准了此支票。”     夏威夷出生證明#25, 1904年3月14日   (由夏威夷州衛生署提供) “頒發于1904年3月14日的夏威夷出生證明。孫中山申請和收到證書,聲明他1870年11月24日出生于夏威夷。”     帶有孫中山照片的證詞   (由夏威夷州衛生署提供) “聲明由孫中山親筆簽名並宣誓1870年11月24日他出生在崴瑪瑙,埃瓦區,瓦胡島(Waimano, Ewa, Oahu)。”[詳見1848年前瓦胡島地圖“家人在夏威夷”]   B. Starr-Kapu & A. Kauhi的證詞   (由夏威夷州衛生署提供) “聲明由B. Starr-Kapu和A. Kauhi簽名並宣誓證明孫中山出生在埃瓦(Ewa)”   給中國入境事務處檢察官去信的複印件   (由夏威夷州衛生署提供) “夏威夷州州務卿向中國入境事務處檢察官去信的複印件,去信聲明一份證明孫中山在夏威夷出生的出生證明已經發給孫中山。”   夏威夷出生證明複印件     (由太平洋地區國家檔案館提供) “孫中山1904年4月航行到舊金山時,他的夏威夷出生證明的複印件被提交到美國移民局”   向中國入境事務處的去信     (由太平洋地區國家檔案館提供) “夏威夷州務卿向夏威夷中國入境事務處檢察官J.K.Brown的去信,去信聲明他已經向在夏威夷出生的孫中山頒發了出生證明。”   Benjamin Starr Kapu的證詞   (由太平洋地區國家檔案館提供) “誓詞由Benjamin Starr Kapu在1904年3月21日親筆簽名,支持證明孫中山的出生地埃瓦(Ewa)”   Wong Kwai的證詞   (由太平洋地區國家檔案館提供) “誓詞由Wong Kwai在1904年3月21日親筆簽名,支持證明孫中山的出生地埃瓦(Ewa)” A.Ahlo 的證詞   (由太平洋地區國家檔案館提供) “誓詞由A.Ahlo在1904年3月22日親筆簽名,支持證明孫中山的出生地埃瓦(Ewa)”   25#證書確認信   (由太平洋地區國家檔案館提供) “信件由中國入境處事務處發向舊金山中國入境檢察官Charles Mehan, 確認孫中山夏威夷的出生證明。”   孫中山1904年4月誓詞     (由太平洋地區國家檔案館提供) “誓詞由孫中山在1904年4月7日在S.S. Korea船上親筆簽名。他聲明他出生在埃瓦區(Ewa), 在伊奧拉尼學院(Iolani)上學,他的三個孩子出生在檀香山,和她的夫人一起住在毛伊島(Maui)。”   孫中山肖像照   (由太平洋地區國家檔案館提供) 孫中山辦理移民手續時的照片   孫昌的誓詞    …

詳情

第二次訪問: 1884年11月-1885年4月

孫眉得知孫中山在香港受洗成爲基督徒後,便讓孫中山回到夏威夷。在此之前,孫眉已經將一半財産轉至孫中山名下,希望幼弟能夠協助其生意。但這一次在1884年,孫眉要求孫中山將財産轉回給自己,並且表示與孫中山兩不相幹,孫中山則需要從此自食其力。孫中山的好友芙籣谛文爲他籌集了300美元路費返回中國。孫中山的伊奧…

詳情